Your butt, hip, or upper leg may hurt or become numb if you have piriformis syndrome. It happens when the sciatic nerve is compressed through the piriformis muscle. Scar tissue on the piriformis, edema, muscle spasms, or injuries could be the cause of the condition. With rest and easy therapies, the majority of episodes resolve in a matter of days or weeks. Your piriformis muscle pulling on the sciatic nerve running underneath it results in piriformis syndrome.

What You Must Understand About Piriformis Syndrome?

Your sciatic nerve becomes compressed by your piriformis muscle, causing inflammation and piriformis syndrome. It may result in tingling or soreness down the back of your leg and in your buttocks. You may experience it on one or both sides of your body. The muscle called piriformis is small and flat. It extends from your lower back to the top of your thighs, passing through your butt. Your piriformis muscle, which stretches across both sides of your body, supports nearly all lower body movements. Most often, the sciatic nerve passes beneath the piriformis. From your spinal cord, the nerve passes through your buttocks, down the back of each leg, and ends at your feet.

It is your body's largest and longest nerve. The syndrome of Piriformis is rare. It is estimated by scientists that piriformis syndrome accounts for only 0.3% to 6% of cases of lower back discomfort. While they both impact the sciatic nerve and are occasionally connected, the diseases are not the same. Sciatica may result from spinal stenosis or a herniated disk. The lower back is typically affected, though the buttocks and leg may also be affected. The sciatic nerve in the buttock is exclusively compressed in one location by the piriformis muscle in cases with piriformis syndrome. It may have a more localized sensation, similar to sciatica.

Symptoms And Causes of Piriformis Syndrome

What causes piriformis syndrome?

Piriformis syndrome can be brought on by anything that causes the piriformis to press against the sciatic nerve.

The following are the main causes of piriformis syndrome:

  • Edema or inflammation in the piriformis or surrounding tissues.
  • Spasms of muscles.
  • Muscular damage.

These problems may arise from:

  • Running, walking, or climbing stairs without having sufficiently developed piriformis muscles.
  • Hip, butt, or leg injuries from falls or auto accidents, for example.
  • Having tense muscles as a result of inactivity.
  • Inappropriate lifting that results in piriformis muscle damage.
  • Not adequately stretching after exercise or warming up before it.
  • Exercising excessively or engaging in repetitive activities like long-distance jogging.
  • Extended periods of sitting (such as those who spend a lot of time at work).

However, piriformis syndrome can also result from aberrant anatomy. Physicians refer to this condition as primary piriformis syndrome. An individual may, for instance, be born with a sciatic nerve that travels unusually. Alternatively, a person may be born with an atypically shaped sciatic nerve or piriformis muscle.

What Are The Symptoms Of Piriformis Syndrome?

Symptoms of piriformis syndrome might be felt in the upper leg, hip, or butt. People frequently characterize the emotion as:

  • Aching.
  • Burning.
  • Absence of feeling.
  • Anguish.
  • Tingling.
  • Aiming.

Some activities can exacerbate symptoms, including:

  • Enduring extended durations of sitting.
  • Jogging or walking.
  • Ascending stairs.

Read More: Everything You Need To Know About Restless Legs Syndrome

What Are Some Of The Diagnosis and Tests?

It can be challenging to diagnose piriformis syndrome and frequently requires clearing out alternative reasons.

  • A medical professional will
  • Inquire about your symptoms and routines of activities.
  • Talk about your past health, especially any injuries.
  • Your hip, butt, and leg can be moved, rotated, pressed, and stretched to determine what hurts and what doesn't.

Tests specifically for piriformis syndrome do not exist. However, in order to rule out other issues that could be the source of your symptoms, a medical professional might prescribe testing. Among these tests are:

  • Ultrasonic.
  • CT scan.
  • MRI.
  • EMG, or electromyography.

Management and Treatment Regarding Piriformis Syndrome

Treatments for piriformis syndrome could involve:

  • A couple days off.
  • At-home workouts to strengthen and extend the piriformis.
  • Nsaids, or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications.
  • The use of massage as supplemental medicine.
  • Drugs that ease muscular tension.
  • Physical treatment for piriformis syndrome that emphasizes piriformis strengthening and stretching.
  • Injections of steroids.
  • Injections of botulinum toxin (Botox®).

Surgery for piriformis syndrome is typically not advised unless all other options have been exhausted. To treat this disease surgically, scar tissue and other pressure caused by the nerve may be removed.


Take into consideration some of the following tactics to prevent piriformis syndrome, especially recurrent (repeat) episodes:

  • To maintain the health of your muscles, exercise often.
  • Pay attention to your posture, particularly when standing, driving, or sitting.
  • Proper lifting involves squatting and bending your knees while maintaining a straight back. When lifting, keep items close to your body and avoid twisting.
  • Before engaging in any physical exercise, warm up and stretch.
  • Take pauses from prolonged sitting by standing, moving around, or stretching.

Prognosis / Outlook

Treatments for piriformis syndrome are straightforward and can help patients recover fast. In days or weeks, symptoms usually become better. However, the illness frequently recurs, particularly in those who disregard their doctor's advice. If left untreated, severe cases can significantly impair a person's capacity for functioning.

How Is It Like Coexisting With Piriformis Syndrome?

Making the following changes can help you manage your piriformis syndrome symptoms when they arise:

  • Steer clear of activities that exacerbate piriformis syndrome. For instance, choose another kind of exercise, at least for a few days, if the situation gets worse when you ride a bike.
  • Incorporate deep massage into the hip and buttock tissues.
  • Regularly get up from your chair. Stretch, stand, and stroll. For those who operate from a desk, like professional drivers, this is especially crucial.
  • To lessen swelling, take NSAIDs as directed on the packaging.

Depending on what works for you, try using hot or cold packs. A few times a day, icing the area for fifteen minutes can help to minimize swelling. Tight muscles can be released by heat, such as from a heating pad. Extend the surrounding muscles and the piriformis. As an illustration, while lying on your back, bring one knee up to your chest. Do the opposite leg after holding it for five to thirty seconds.

A further illustration would be to stand, slant your hips, and allow your hands and head to drop to the ground. This will pass through the buttocks and rear of the legs. Should you encounter any of the following symptoms, contact your healthcare physician if you have piriformis syndrome:

  • Frequent falls or trips due to numbness or pain.
  • More than a few weeks of pain, particularly if you've been adhering to recommendations and changing your lifestyle.
  • Issues with bladder or bowel control (peeing or pooping).
  • An abrupt and intense ache in your leg or lower back.
  • Your leg or back may suddenly become weak or numb.
  • Damage or trauma to your leg, hip, or back.
  • Having trouble getting your foot off the ground.


When the sciatic nerve is compressed by the piriformis muscle, piriformis syndrome develops. Your butt, hip, or upper leg may hurt, become numb, or tingle as a result of the ailment. With rest and easy therapies, the majority of episodes resolve in a few days or weeks. However, if the pain was caused by an accident or if the symptoms persist for longer than a few weeks, see your doctor.

Please book an appointment with the best Physiotherapist in Lahore, Karachi, Islamabad, and all major cities of Pakistan through InstaCare, or call our helpline at 03171777509 to find a verified doctor for your disease.