Parkinson - Symptoms, Risk factors and Treatment

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement. The symptoms of Parkinson's disease start gradually. You may barely notice the tremor in just one hand. However, with the progression of the disease, the symptoms may increase. It may also cause the slowing down of muscles along with stiffness.


At earlier stages of Parkinson’s, the face of the person may appear expressionless. By the progression of time, they may be unable to swing their arms while walking. Then it may affect their speech, causing slurring. Parkinson’s is a progressive disorder, which means it can not be stopped. With aging, the symptoms might increase. However, medications help in decreasing the severity of those symptoms. In a quiet few cases, the healthcare provider may recommend surgery. 


Symptoms 


For everyone, the signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s may differ. Initially, the symptoms may be mild and affect only one side of the body. By the time they may progress to both sides. The sign and symptoms may include;


Tremors 


The most common sign of Parkinson’s disease is tremor. Your hand may still be shaky when you put it at rest. It usually begins from one limb, one hand, or fingers. However, it may progress to another one, as the disease progresses. 


Slowed movement


Slowed movement, also known as bradykinesia, is also a symptom of Parkinson’s disease. Your coordination and movements may get slowed down. It may also become difficult for you to move from one place to another or just getting out of the chair. Little acts may take more time than usual. Also, while walking, you may drag out your feet. 


Muscles stiffness 


Your muscles may become stiff and rigid that can lower your range of motion. 


Impaired posture 


Parkinson’s also affects your balance and posture. It becomes hard for you to balance yourself. Also, it leads to stooped posture, due to which it may become difficult for you to walk large distances. 


Loss of spontaneous movements


Due to the rigidity of muscles, it may become difficult to perform spontaneous movements like winking, blinking, swinging your arms while walking, and other unconscious movements. 


Changes in speech


Parkinson’s can also cause changes in speech, making it monotonous. Generally, you have variations and hesitation when you speak.


Changes in writing 


Due to tremors, it may become difficult for you to write. 


Causes


Parkinson’s disease occurs due to the death of neurons- the nerve cells. Since these cells produce a chemical called dopamine, due to their death the levels of dopamine fall, leading to abnormal signs and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, the healthcare providers prescribe medications that help in restoring the dopamine levels, which eventually helps in lowering the intensity of those abnormal signs and symptoms. Parkinson’s disease can occur due to 


  • Genetic tendency 

  • Environmental triggers

  • Increasing age

  • Male gender

  • Exposure to toxins like pesticides and herbicides



Complications 


Parkinson’s disease can lead to further complications like;


  • Difficulty in thinking and writing 

  • Depression 

  • Emotional changes 

  • Irritability 

  • Increased falling incidents

  • Swallowing difficulties 

  • Chewing difficulty 

  • Sleeping disorders

  • Urinary incontinence 

  • Constipation 

  • Changes in smelling sensation 

  • Fatigue

  • Changes in blood pressure

  • Orthostatic hypotension 

  • Sexual dysfunction 


Conclusion 


Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder of the nervous system that affects movement. With aging, the symptoms might increase. However, medications help in decreasing the severity of those symptoms. In a quiet few cases, the healthcare provider may recommend surgery.


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