Pneumonia - Symptoms, Risk factors and Treatment

Pneumonia is the infection of one or both lungs. It can occur due to viruses, bacteria, or fungi. Your lungs fill with pus and fluid that causes inflammation of the alveoli, eventually causing breathing difficulty. Pneumonia should be treated at the right time. If left untreated, it can become life-threatening. It can occur due to various causes, commonly due to exposure to a cold environment. 


What are the Signs and Symptoms of Pneumonia?


Pneumonia can show the following signs and symptoms;


  • Cough 

  • Shortness of breath

  • Chest pain (during breathing or coughing)

  • Sweating or chills 

  • Nausea and vomiting

  • Headache 

  • Green phlegm 

  • Fever

  • Difficulty in breathing

  • Loss of appetite



What are the Causes of Pneumonia?


Pneumonia occurs due to viruses, fungi, and bacteria. Germs are present around you. They can enter your body through your nose and mouth and finally reside in the lungs, causing infection. 


Respiratory infections spread from person to person through airborne droplets. If an infected person coughs and sneezes in a close environment in front of others, the other people will eventually catch the infection. The germs can also transmit through high-touch surfaces. If an infected person is carrying viruses on his hand and touches the surface, he will transmit the virus on the surface. If a healthy person touches that surface again, he can catch the virus easily. 


You can protect yourself from respiratory tract infections by wearing a mask if you are coughing or sneezing. Wash your hands frequently and sanitize them with an alcohol-based sanitizer. Do not touch your face, nose, and eyes with unwashed hands.

Keep disinfecting the high-touch surfaces like switchboards, doorknobs, fridge doors, and keys, etc. Avoid going to overcrowd places and maintain a distance of 6 feet from the one who is coughing or sneezing.



What are the Types of Pneumonia?


Pneumonia, based on the cause can be classified as;


  • Community-acquired pneumonia 

  • Hospital-acquired pneumonia 

  • Health care-acquired pneumonia

  • Aspiration pneumonia 


Community-acquired pneumonia 


Pneumonia that is acquired from outside of the hospital is known as community-acquired pneumonia. The most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia is Streptococcus Pneumoniae. However other viruses, bacteria, and fungi can also play a role. Nowadays, coronavirus has also become a big source of community-acquired pneumonia. 



Hospital-acquired pneumonia


Hospital-acquired pneumonia is the one that patients catch during their hospital stay. It is the second most acquired disease from hospitals. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is more difficult to treat as compared to others because;


The patient may also be already immunocompromised

The causative strain can be mutant or already resistant to various antibiotics


Health care-acquired pneumonia 


Health care-acquired pneumonia is caused mostly by bacteria. It occurs when a person lives in a healthcare facility for a long time or visits time and again like for kidney dialysis. Like hospital-acquired pneumonia, healthcare-acquired pneumonia is also difficult to treat as compared to others because;


The patient may also be already immunocompromised

The causative strain can be mutant or already resistant to various antibiotics


Aspiration pneumonia


Aspiration pneumonia occurs when a person inhales something. It can be saliva, vomit, or any food. Aspiration is more likely to occur if the person has any brain damage, swallowing difficulty, excessive use of drugs or alcohol. 


Conclusion 


Pneumonia is the infection of one or both lungs. It can occur due to viruses, bacteria, or fungi. To prevent it, you can wear masks when in contact with an infected person. The doctors generally prescribe antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs to get rid of it. Moreover, you should avoid expsoure to cold environments to prevent it. If you have any symptoms of pneumonia, you should visit the healthcare provider soon.


Doctors For Pneumonia

Akram Medical Complex

General Physician

38 Years

Dr. Rafat Nasir

General Physician

36 Years

Dr. Mohammed Tanweer Khan

General Physician

30 Years

Dr. Hasnain Sheikh

General Physician

20 Years

Dr. Kahkashan

General Physician

15 Years

Dr. Asad Riaz

General Physician

10 Years

Dr. Nida Shoaib

General Physician

9 Years

Dr. Shahbaz Ashraf

General Physician

8 Years

Dr. Umer Ibrahim

General Physician

7 Years

Doctors for Pneumonia in Different Cities