Diphtheria - Symptoms, Risk factors and Treatment

Last Updated On Monday, January 30, 2023

Diphtheria in Urdu

ڈفتھیریا ایک سنگین بیکٹیریل انفیکشن ہے جو آپ کی ناک اور گلے کی چپچپا جھلیوں کو متاثر کرتا ہے۔ یہ ترقی یافتہ ممالک میں ایک نایاب بیماری ہے، تاہم، ترقی پذیر ممالک میں، ناکافی حفاظتی ٹیکوں کی وجہ سے یہ اب بھی برقرار ہے۔


خناق ایک سنگین انفیکشن ہے جو پورے جسم کو متاثر کرتا ہے۔ تاہم، مناسب حفاظتی ٹیکوں کے ذریعے اس سے کافی حد تک بچا جا سکتا ہے۔ بیداری اور حفاظتی ٹیکوں کی کمی کی وجہ سے دنیا میں خناق اب بھی موجود ہے۔ مناسب آگاہی اور حفاظتی ٹیکوں کے ذریعے ہم دنیا سے اس مہلک بیماری کے خاتمے کی امید کر سکتے ہیں۔

Diphtheria in English

Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection that affects the mucous membranes of your nose and throat. It is a rare disease in developed countries, however, in developing countries, it still persists due to inadequate immunization. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in 2018, more than 16,000 cases were reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) which indicated that diphtheria is still a problem and more work has to be done for total eradication.


What causes diphtheria?


Diphtheria is caused by the bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It spreads by close personal contact and is highly contagious. It can transmit to others when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Also, it can be transmitted if the infected person has touched a surface and then someone else touches that surface. 


The good news:


The good news is that diphtheria is a vaccine-preventable disease. The diphtheria vaccine was introduced in the 1920s and has served as a revolution in preventing diphtheria. The infection rates dropped drastically after the invention of the vaccine.


Who is at risk for getting diphtheria?


Poor Immunization


Vaccination is the only practical and best way to stay protected from diphtheria. It is a part of the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) and is administered at the age of six weeks along with other vaccines like tetanus and pertussis followed by two more doses. In countries where immunization is poor, diphtheria can be a problem.


Immunosuppressive states


The body's immune system is responsible for fighting off germs and bacteria. When due to some reason, the immune system is suppressed and not working properly, it can give chance to many organisms to cause infections. In diseases like AIDS, chemotherapy due to cancer, or after organ transplantation, the immune system is suppressed making one vulnerable to infections. Diphtheria could be one of them.


Signs and symptoms


  • The signs and symptoms of diphtheria include:
  • Fever
  • Fatigue
  • Sore throat
  • Cough
  • Nasal discharge
  • A grayish-white membrane covering the back of the mouth
  • Enlarged glands
  • Difficulty breathing 
  • Rapid breathing


Complications Of Diphtheria


Mechanical Complications

 

Airway obstruction:

Diphtheria forms a thick membrane at the back of the throat, thereby, constricting the airway and making breathing and swallowing difficult.


Complications due to toxin release


Corynebacterium diphtheriae releases a toxin that damages primarily the following organs:


The nerves:

Nerve damage results in muscular paralysis.


The kidneys:

Damage to the kidneys results in kidney failure.


Heart damage:

Damage to the heart can cause a dilated heart (Cardiomyopathy), Inflammation of the heart tissues (endocarditis, myocarditis) disturbance in heart rhythm (dysrhythmia), etc.


Treatment of Diphtheria:

The treatment of Diphtheria involves mainly two things:


Antitoxin:

Diphtheria antitoxin is given to counteract the harmful effects of the Diphtheria toxin.


Antibiotics:

Since Diphtheria is a bacteria, antibiotics are administered to kill it and treat the disease.


Moreover, supportive care like mechanical ventilation may be given.


Prevention of Diphtheria:


The best prevention for diphtheria is vaccination. It is given in childhood and booster doses are recommended when traveling to areas where diphtheria is present. 


Conclusion


Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection that affects the mucous membranes of your nose and throat. It is a rare disease in developed countries, however, in developing countries, it still persists due to inadequate immunization.


Diphtheria is a serious infection that affects the whole body. However, it can be prevented greatly by proper immunization. Lack of awareness and immunization is the reason diphtheria still prevails in the world. With proper awareness and immunization, we can hope to eradicate this deadly disease from the world.


Frequently Asked Questions

Diphtheria meaning in urdu is Khanak خُناق

Diphtheria is a serious bacterial infection that usually affects the mucous membranes of the nose and throat. Diphtheria is extremely rare in the United States and other developed countries thanks to widespread vaccination against the disease. Symptoms of diphtheria include a thick, gray membrane covering the throat and tonsils, sore throat, swollen glands in the neck, difficulty breathing, nasal discharge, fever and chills, and tiredness. In some cases, diphtheria can cause serious complications such as heart damage, nerve damage, and even death.

The first symptom of diphtheria is usually a thick, gray membrane covering the throat and tonsils. Other symptoms may include a sore throat, swollen glands in the neck, difficulty breathing, nasal discharge, fever and chills, and tiredness.

Diphtheria is most commonly found in Asia, the South Pacific, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic. It is also found in sub-Saharan Africa, with outbreaks occurring in Nigeria and Madagascar since 2000.

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